Publication list updated on 22nd February 2017


Martinson VG, Douglas AE and Jaenike J, in press. Community structure of gut microbiota within and among sympatric species of wild Drosophila. Ecology Letters


Adair KL and Douglas AE, 2016. Making a microbiome: The many determinants of host-associated microbial community composition. Current Opinion in Microbiology 35: 23-29. Pubmed Link

Chen W, Hasegawa DK,  Kaur N, Kliot A, Pinheiro P, Luan J, Stensmyr MC, Zheng Y, Liu W, Sun H, Xu Y, Luo Y, Kruse A, Yang X, Kontsedalov S, Lebedev G, Fisher TW, Nelson DR, Hunter WB, Brown JK, Jander G, Cilia M, Douglas AE, Ghanim M, Simmons AV, Wintermantel WM, Ling K-S and Fei Z, in press. The draft genome of whitefly Bemisia tabaci MEAM1, a global crop pest, provides novel insights into virus transmission, host 5 adaptation, and insecticide resistance. BMC Biology 14, 110. Pubmed Link

Dobson AD, Chaston JM and Douglas AE, 2016. The Drosophila transcriptional network is structured by microbiota. BMC Genomics 17: 975. PubMed Link

Douglas AE 2016. How multi-partner endosymbiosis function. Nature Reviews Microbiology Epub 31st October  Pubmed Link

Luan JB*, Shan H-W*, Isermann P, Huang J-H, Lammerding J, Liu S-S and Douglas AE 2016. Cellular and molecular remodeling of a host cell for vertical transmission of bacterial symbionts. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B  283: 1833. [*joint first authors] Pubmed Link

Koyle ME, Veloz M, Judd A, Wong A C-N, Newell PD, Douglas AE and Chaston JM. 2016. Rearing the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster under axenic and gnotobiotic conditions. Journal of Visualized Experiments 113: e54219. Video is available here. Pubmed Link

Overend G, Luo Y, Henderson L, Douglas AE, Davies SA, Dow JAT. 2016. Molecular mechanism and functional significance of acid generation in the Drosophila midgut. Scientific Reports 6: 27242. Pubmed Link

Jing XF, White TA, Luan J, Jiao C, Fei Z and Douglas AE, 2016. Evolutionary conservation of candidate osmoregulation genes in plant phloem-sap feeding insects. Insect Molecular Biology 25: 251-8. Pubmed Link

Douglas AE and Werren JH, 2016. Holes in the hologenome: why host-microbial symbioses are not holobionts. mBio 7: e02099-15. Pubmed Link

Chaston JM, Dobson AJ, Newell PD and Douglas AE, 2016. Host genetic control of the microbiota mediates Drosophila nutritional phenotype. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 82: 671-9. Pubmed Link


Luan J, Chen W, DK, Simmons AM, Wintermantel WM, Ling K-S, Fei Z, Liu S-S and Douglas AE, 2015. Metabolic coevolution in the bacterial symbiosis of whiteflies and related plant sap-feeding insects. Genome Biology and Evolution 7: 2635-47. Pubmed Link

Huang J-H and Douglas AE, 2015. Consumption of dietary sugar by gut bacteria determines Drosophila lipid content. Biology Letters 11: 20150469. Pubmed Link

Douglas AE 2015. Symbiotic mutualisms: special issues. In Mutualism, ed. J. Bronstein, pp. 20-34. Oxford University Press.

Wong A*, Luo Y*, Jing X, Franzenburg S, Bost A and Douglas AE, 2015.  The Host as driver of the microbiota in the gut and external environment of Drosophila melanogaster. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 81: 6232-6240. [*Joint first authors]. Pubmed Link

Tzin V*, Yang X*, Jing X, Zhang K, Jander G and Douglas AE 2015. RNA interference against gut osmoregulatory genes in phloem feeding insects.  Journal of Insect Physiology  79: 105-112. [*Joint first authors]. Pubmed Link

Jing X, White TA and Douglas AE. 2015. The molecular correlates of organ loss: the case of insect Malpighian tubules.  Biology Letters 11: 20150154. Pubmed Link

Huang JH*, Jing X* and Douglas AE. 2015. The multi-tasking gut epithelium of insects.  Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 67: 15-20. [*Joint first authors] Pubmed Link

Dobson AJ*, Chaston JM*, Newell PD, Donahue L, Hermann SL, Sannino DR, Westmiller S, Wong A, Clark AG, Lazzaro BP and Douglas AE. 2015. Host genetic determinants of microbiota-dependent nutrition revealed by genome-wide analysis of Drosophila melanogaster. Nature Communications 6:6312. [*Joint first authors] Pubmed Link

Lin XL, Pan QJ, Tian HG, Douglas AE and Liu TX 2015. Bacteria abundance and diversity of different life stages of Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) revealed by bacateria culture-dependent and PCR-DGGE methods. Insect Science 22: 375-385. Pubmed Link.

Raguso R, Agrawal AA, Douglas AE, Jander G, Kessler A, Poveda K and Thaler JS 2015. The raison d’etre of chemical ecology. Ecology 96: 617-630. Pubmed Link

Douglas AE, 2015. The multi-organismal insect: diversity and function of resident microorganisms. Annual Review of Entomology 60: 17-34. Pubmed Link


Newell PD, Chaston JM, Yang Y, Winans NJ, Sannino DR, Wong AC, Dobson AJ, Kagle J and Douglas AE, 2014. In vivo function and comparative genomic analyses of the Drosophila gut microbiota identify candidate symbiosis factors. Frontiers in Microbiology 5: 576. Pubmed Link

Chaston JM*, Newell PD* and Douglas AE, 2014. Metagenome-wide association of microbial determinants of host phenotype in Drosophila melanogaster. MBio 5:e01631-14. [*Joint first authors] Pubmed Link

Douglas AE, 2014. Molecular dissection of nutrient exchange at the insect-microbial interface. Current Opinion in Insect Science 4: 23-28.

Russell CW, Poliakov A, Haribal M, Jander G, van Wijk K and Douglas AE, 2014. Matching the supply of bacterial nutrients to the nutritional demand of the animal host. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London  B 281:20141163 Pubmed Link

Douglas AE, 2014. The molecular basis of bacterial-insect symbiosis. Journal of Molecular Biology 426: 3830-7. Pubmed Link

Wong AC-N*, Dobson AJ* and Douglas AE, 2014. Gut microbiota dictates the metabolic response of Drosophila to diet. Journal of Experimental Biology 217: 1894-1901 Pubmed Link [*Joint first authors] 

Jing XF, Wong ACN, Chaston JM, Colvin J, McKenzie CL and Douglas AE, 2014. The bacterial communities in plant phloem sap feeding insects. Molecular Ecology 23: 1433-1444. Pubmed Link

Douglas AE, 2014. Symbiosis as a general principle in eukaryotic evolution. In Origin and Evolution of Eukaryotes (eds Patrick Keeling and Eugene Koonin) Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology 6:a016113. Journal Link

Newell PD and Douglas AE, 2014. Inter-species interactions determine the impact of gut microbiota on nutrient allocation in Drosophila melanogaster. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 80: 788-796. Pubmed Link

Bouvaine S, Faure M-L, Grebenok RJ, Behmer ST and Douglas AE, 2014. A dietary test of putative deleterious sterols for the aphid Myzus persicae. PLoS One 9(1):e86256. Pubmed Link



Scott JG, Michel K, Bartholomay L, Siegfried B, Hunter WB, Smagghe G, Zhu KY and Douglas AE, 2013.  Towards the elements of successful RNAi. Journal of Insect Physiology 59: 1212-1221. Pubmed.

Douglas AE and Dobson AD, 2013. Animal communication mediated by microbes: fact or fantasy? Journal of Chemical Ecology 39:1149. Pubmed

Russell, CW, Bouvaine S, Newell PD and Douglas AE, 2013. Shared metabolic pathways in a coevolved insect-bacterial symbiosis. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 79: 6117-6123. Pubmed.

MacDonald SJ, Thomas GH and Douglas AE, 2013. Nitrogen recycling by metabolic pathways shared between and animal and its symbiotic bacteria. The Biochemist 35 (4) August Journal Link

Douglas AE, 2013. Microbial brokers of insect-plant interactions revisited. Journal of Chemical Ecology 39: 952-961. Pubmed Link

Wong ACN*, Chaston JM* and Douglas AE, 2013. The inconstant gut microbiota of Drosophila species revealed by 16S rRNA gene analysis. The ISME Journal 7: 1922-32. Pubmed Link [*joint first authors]

Karasov WH and Douglas AE, 2013. Comparative Digestive Physiology. Comprehensive Physiology 3:741-783. American Physiological Society Pubmed Link

Ridley EV, Wong ACN and Douglas AE, 2013. Microbe-dependent and non-specific effects of procedures to eliminate the resident microbiota from Drosophila melanogaster. Applied and Environmental Microbiology79: 3209-14. Pubmed Link

McFall-Ngai M, Hadfield, MG, Bosch TCG, Carey HV, Domazet-Loso T, Douglas AE, Dubilier N, Eberl G, Fukami T, Gilbert SF, Hentschel U, King N, Kjelleberg S, Knoll AH, Kremer N, Mazmanian SK, Metfalf JL, Nealson K, Pierce NE, Rawls JF, Reid A, Ruby EG, Rumpho M, Sanders J, Tautz D, Wernegreen JJ 2013. Animals in a bacterial world: a new imperative for the life sciences. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 110, 3229-36. Pubmed Link


Chaston J and Douglas AE, 2012. Making the most of omics for symbiosis research. Biological Bulletin 223:21-29. Pubmed Link.

Bouvaine S, Behmer ST, Lin GG, Faure M-L, Grebenok RJ and Douglas AE, 2012. The physiology of sterol nutrition in the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum. Journal of Insect Physiology, 58: 1383-9. Pubmed Link.

Aronstein KA, Saldivar E, Vega R, Westmiller S and Douglas AE 2012. How Varroa parasitism affects the immunological and nutritional status of the honey bee, Apis mellifera. Insects 3: 601-615. Journal Link

Douglas AE 2012. “Can’t live without you”: essential animal-bacterial relationships. Microbe 7: 273-277. Journal Link

Ridley EV, Wong ACN, Westmiller S and Douglas AE 2012. Impact of the resident microbiota on the nutritional phenotype of Drosophila melanogaster. PLoS One, 7(5): e36765. Pubmed Link

Macdonald SJ, Lin GG, Russell CW, Thomas GH and Douglas AE, 2012. The central role of the host cell in symbiotic nitrogen metabolism. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B 279: 2965-2973. Pubmed link

Wallace IS, Shakesby AJ, Hwang JH, Choi WG, Martinkova N, Douglas AE and Roberts DM, 2012.Acyrthosiphon pisum AQP2: a multifunctional insect aquaglyceroporin. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta – Biomembranes 1818: 627-635 Pubmed Link

Taylor, SH, Parker WE and Douglas AE, 2012. Patterns in aphid honeydew production and parallel diurnal shifts in phloem sap composition. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 142: 121-129. Journal Link


Douglas AE, 2011. Is the regulation of insulin signaling multi-organismal? Science Signaling 4, pe46. Pubmed Link.

Douglas AE, 2011. Lessons from studying insect symbioses. Cell Host Microbe 10: 359-367.  Journal link

Wong ACN, Ng P and Douglas AE, 2011. Low diversity bacterial community in the gut of the fruitfly Drosophila melanogaster. Environmental Microbiology 13: 1889-1900. Pubmed link

Behmer ST, Grebenok RJ and Douglas AE, 2011. Plant sterols and host plant suitability for a phloem-feeding insect. Functional Ecology 25: 484-491. Journal link

Vellozo AF, Veron AS, Baa-Puyoulet P, Huerta-Cepas J, Cottret L, Febvay G, Calevro F, Rahbe Y, Douglas AE, Gabaldon T, Sagot M-F, Charles H and Colella S, 2011. CycADS: an annotation database system to ease the development and update of BioCyc databases. Database (Oxford). Apr 7:bar008. Pubmed link

Poliakov A*, Russell CW*, Ponnala L, Hoops HJ, Sun Q, Douglas AE and van Wijk KJ, 2011. Large-scale label-free quantitative proteomics of the pea aphid-Buchnera symbiosis. Molecular and Cellular Proteomics 10: M10.007039. [*joint first authors] Pubmed link

MacDonald SJ, Thomas GH and Douglas AE, 2011. Genetic and metabolic determinants of nutritional phenotype in an insect-bacterial symbiosis. Molecular Ecology 20: 2073-84. Pubmed link

Bouvaine S, Boonham N and Douglas AE, 2011. Interactions between a luteovirus and the GroEL chaperonin protein of the symbiotic bacterium Buchnera aphidicola of aphids. Journal of general Virology. 92: 1467-74.Pubmed link

Douglas AE, Bouvaine S and Russell R, 2011. How the insect immune system interacts with an obligate symbiotic bacterium. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B 278, 333-338. Pubmed link


Douglas AE, 2010. The Symbiotic Habit. Princeton University Press.

Wang Y, Carolan JC, Hao, F-H, Nicholson, J, Wilkinson TL and Douglas AE, 2010. Integrated metabonomic-proteomic analysis of an insect-bacterial symbiotic system. Journal of Proteome Research 9, 1257-1267. Pubmed Link

The International Aphid Genomics Consortium, 2010. Genome sequence of the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum. PLos Biology 8(2), e1000313. Journal Link

Wilson ACC, Ashton PD, Calevro F, Charles H, Colella S, Febvay G, Jander G, Kushlan P, Macdonald SA, Schwartz J, Thomas GH and Douglas AE, 2010. Genomic insight into the amino acid relations of the pea aphidAcyrthosiphon pisum with its symbiotic bacterium Buchnera aphidicola. Insect Molecular Biology 19, s2, 249-258. Journal Link

Ramsey JS, MacDonald SJ, Jander G, Nakabachi A, Thomas GH and Douglas AE, 2010. Genomic evidence for complementary purine metabolism in the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum and its symbiotic bacteriumBuchnera aphidicola. Insect Molecular Biology 19, s2, 241-248. Journal Link

Price DRG, Tibbles K, Shigenobu S, Smertenko A, Russell CW, Douglas AE, Fitches E, Gatehouse AMR and Gatehouse JA, 2010. Sugar transporters of the major facilitator superfamily in aphids; from gene prediction to functional characterisation. Insect Molecular Biology 19, S2, 97-112. Journal Link

Hazell SP, Neve BP, Groutides C, Douglas AE, Blackburn TM and Bale JS, 2010. Hyperthermic aphids: insights into behaviour and mortality. Journal of Insect Physiology 56, 123-131. Pubmed Link

Hawkes CV, Douglas AE and Fitter AH, 2010. Origin, local experience and the relative impact of biotic interactions on native and introduced Senecio species. Biological Invasions 12, 113-124.


Bermingham J, Rabatel A, Calevro F, Viñuelas J, Febvay G, Charles H, Douglas AE and Wilkinson TL, 2009. Impact of host developmental age on the transcriptome of the symbiotic bacterium Buchnera aphidicola in the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 75, 7294-7297. Pubmed link

Douglas AE 2009. Mutualism and Commensalism: endosymbionts and intracellular parasites. In Encyclopedia of Microbiology (3rd edition), pp.128-141. Academic Press.

Carolan JC, Fitzroy CF, Ashton PD, Douglas AE and Wilkinson TL, 2009. The proteome of the pea aphid saliva characterized by LC/MS-MS. Proteomics 9, 2457-2467.  Pubmed link

Shakesby AJ, Wallace IS, Isaacs HV, Pritchard J, Roberts DM and Douglas AE, 2009. A water-specific aquaporin involved in aphid osmoregulation. Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 39, 1-10. Pubmed link

Thomas GH, Zucker J, Macdonald AJ, Sorokin A, Goryanin I and Douglas AE, 2009. A fragile metabolic network adapted for cooperation in the symbiotic bacterium Buchnera aphidicola. BMC Systems Biology 3, 24. Pubmedlink

Gündüz EA and Douglas AE 2009. Symbiotic bacteria enable insect to utilise a nutritionally-inadequate diet.Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B. 276, 987-991. Pubmed link

Douglas AE, 2009. Honeydew. In Encyclopedia of Insects (ed. VH Resh and RT Cardé) 2nd edn, pp. 461-463. Academic Press, Amsterdam.

Douglas AE, 2009. The microbial dimension in insect nutritional ecology. Functional Ecology 23, 38-47



Douglas AE, 2008. Conflict, cheats and persistence of symbioses.  New Phytologist 177, 849-858. Pubmed link

Fitches E, Wiles D, Douglas AE, Hinchcliffe G, Audsley N and Gatehouse JA, 2008. The insecticidal activity of recombinant garlic lectins towards aphids.  Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 38, 905-915. Pubmed link

Chandler SM, Wilkinson TL and Douglas AE, 2008. Impact of plant nutrients on the relationship between a herbivorous insect and its symbiotic bacteria. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B 275, 565-570.Pubmed link

Venn AA, Loram JE and Douglas AE, 2008. Photosynthetic symbioses in animals.  Journal of Experimental Botany 59, 1069-1080. Pubmed link

Venn AA, Loram JE, Trapido-Rosenthal HG, Joyce DA and Douglas AE, 2008. The importance of time and place: patterns in abundance of Symbiodinium clades A and B in the tropical sea anemone. Biological Bulletin215, 243-252. Pubmed link


Pescod KV, Quick WP and Douglas AE, 2007. Aphid responses to plants with genetically manipulated phloem nutrient levels. Physiological Entomology 32, 253-258.

Douglas AE, 2007. Symbiotic microorganisms: untapped resources for insect pest control. Trends in Biotechnology 25, 338-342. Pubmed

Loram JE, Boonham N, O’Toole P. Trapido-Rosenthal HG and Douglas AE, 2007. Molecular quantification of symbiotic dinoflagellate algae of the genus Symbiodinium. Biological Bulletin 212, 259-268. Pubmed

Price DRG, Karley AJ, Ashford DA, Isaacs HV, Pownall ME, Wilkinson HS, Gatehouse JA and Douglas AE, 2007. Molecular characterisation of a candidate gut sucrase in the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum. Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 37, 307-317. Pubmed

Loram JE, Trapido-Rosenthal HG and Douglas AE, 2007. Functional significance of genetically different symbiotic algae, Symbiodinium, in a coral reef symbiosis. Molecular Ecology 16, 4849-4857. Pubmed

Visram S. and Douglas AE, 2007. Resilience and acclimation to bleaching stressors in the scleractinian coralPorites cylindrica. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 349, 35-44.

Douglas AE and van Emden HF, 2007. Nutrition and symbiosis. In: Aphids as Crop Pests (ed van Emden H and Harrington R). CABI International, UK.


Reymond, N, Calevro F, Viñuelas J, Morin N, Rahbé Y, Febvay G, Laugier C, Douglas AE, Fayard J-M and Charles H, 2006. Different levels of transcriptional regulation due to trophic constraints in the reduced genome of Buchnera aphidicola APS. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 72, 7760-7766. Pubmed

Douglas AE, 2006. Phloem sap feeding by animals: problems and solutions. Journal of Experimental Botany57, 747-754. Pubmed

Venn AA, Wilson MA, Trapido-Rosenthal HG, Keely BJ and Douglas AE, 2006. The impact of coral bleaching on the pigment profile of the symbiotic alga, Symbiodinium. Plant, Cell and Environment 29, 2133-214. Pubmed

Visram S, Wiedenmann J and Douglas AE, 2006 Molecular diversity of symbiotic algae Symbiodinium(zooxanthellae) in cnidarians of the Mediterranean Sea. Journal of the Marine Biological Association UK 86, 1281-3.

Douglas, AE, Francois, CLMJ and Minto LB, 2006. Facultative ‘secondary’ bacterial symbionts and the nutrition of the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum. Physiological Entomology 31, 262-269.

Barbrook AC, Visram S, Douglas AE and Howe CJ, 2006. Molecular diversity of dinoflagellate symbionts of Cnidaria: the psbA minicircle of Symbiodinium. Protist 157, 159-171. Pubmed

Douglas AE, Price DRG, Minto LB, Jones E, Pescod, KV, Francois CLMJ, Pritchard J and Boonham N, 2006. Sweet problems: insect traits defining the limits to dietary sugar utilisation by the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum. Journal of Experimental Biology 209, 1395-1403. Pubmed

Prickett MD, Page M, Douglas AE and Thomas GH, 2006. BuchneraBASE: a post-genomic resource forBuchnera sp. APS. Bioinformatics 22, 641-2.20. Pubmed

Visram S and Douglas AE, 2006. Molecular diversity of symbiotic algae (zooxanthellae) in scleractinian corals of Kenya. Coral Reefs 25, 172-6.


Karley AJ, Ashford DA, Minto LB, Pritchard J and Douglas AE, 2005. The significance of gut sucrase activity for osmoregulation in the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum. Journal of Insect Physiology 51, 1313-1319. Pubmed

Darby AC, Chandler SM, Welburn SC and Douglas AE, 2005. Symbiotic bacteria of aphids cultured in insect cell lines. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 71, 4833-4839. Pubmed

Douglas AE, 2005. Bugs within bugs: symbiotic bacteria in garden insects. Microbiology Today 32, 76-79.


Tosh CR, Morgan D, Walters KFA and Douglas AE, 2004. The significance of overlapping plant range in the aphid species complex Aphis fabae Scop. Ecological Entomology 29, 488-497.

Birkle LM, Minto LB, Walters KFA and Douglas AE, 2004. Microbial genotype and insect fitness in an aphid-bacterial symbiosis. Functional Ecology 18, 598-604.

Ferrari J, Darby AC, Daniell TJ, Godfray HCJ and Douglas AE, 2004. Linking the bacterial community in pea aphids with host-plant use and natural enemy resistance. Ecological Entomology 29, 60-65.

Karley, AJ, Parker WE, Pitchford JW and Douglas AE, 2004. The mid-season crash in aphid populations: why and how does it occur? Ecological Entomology 29, 383-388.

Douglas AE, 2004. Strategies in antagonistic and cooperative interactions. In: Microbial Evolution: Gene Establishment, Survival and Exchange (ed. RV Miller and MJ Day), pp. 275-289.


Cloutier C and Douglas AE, 2003. Impact of a parasitoid on the bacterial symbiosis of its aphid host.Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 109, 13-19.

Douglas AE, 2003. Nutritional physiology of aphids. Advances in Insect Physiology 31, 73-140.

Haynes S, Darby AC, Daniell TJ, Webster G, van Veen FJF, Godfray HCJ, Prosser JI and Douglas AE, 2003. The diversity of bacteria associated with natural aphid populations. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 69, 7216-7223. Pubmed

Karley AJ, Pitchford JW, Douglas AE, Parker WE and Howard JJ, 2003. The causes and processes of the mid-summer population crash of potato aphids. Bulletin of Entomological Research 93, 425-437. Pubmed

Whitehead LF and Douglas AE, 2003. Metabolite comparisons and the identity of nutrients translocated from symbiotic algae to an animal host. Journal of experimental Biology 206, 3149-3157. Pubmed

Darby AC and Douglas AE, 2003. Elucidating the transmission patterns of an insect-borne bacterium. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 69, 4403-4407. Pubmed

Darby AC, Tosh CR, Walters KFA and Douglas AE, 2003. The significance of a facultative bacterium to natural populations of the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum. Ecological Entomology 28, 145-150.

Wilkinson TL and Douglas AE, 2003. Phloem amino acids and the host plant range of the polyphagous aphid,Aphis fabae. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 106, 1-11.

Johnson SN, Douglas AE, Woodward S and Hartley SE, 2003. Microbial impacts on plant-herbivore interactions: the indirect effects of a birch pathogen on a birch aphid. Oecologia 134, 388-396. Pubmed

Douglas AE and Raven JA, 2003. Genomes at the interface between bacteria and organelles. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B 358, 5-17. Pubmed

Douglas AE, 2003. Coral bleaching – how and why? Marine Pollution Bulletin 46, 385-392. Pubmed

Douglas AE, 2003. Buchnera bacteria and other symbionts of aphids. In Insect Symbiosis, ed. K. Bourtzis and T.A. Miller. pp 23-38. CRC Press, Boca Raton.


Birkle LM, Minto LB and Douglas AE, 2002. Relating genotype and phenotype for tryptophan synthesis in an aphid-bacterial symbiosis. Physiological Entomology 27, 1-5.

Savage AM, Goodson MS, Visram S, Trapido-Rosenthal H, Wiedenmann J and Douglas AE, 2002. Molecular diversity of symbiotic algae at the latitudinal margins of their distribution: dinoflagellates of the genusSymbiodinium in corals and sea anemones. Marine Ecology Progress Series 244, 17-26.

Savage AM, Trapido-Rosenthal H and Douglas AE, 2002. On the functional significance of molecular variation in Symbiodinium, the symbiotic algae of Cnidaria: photosynthetic response to irradiance. Marine Ecology Progress Series 244, 27-37.

Karley AJ, Douglas AE and Parker WE, 2002. Amino acid composition and nutritional quality of potato leaf phloem sap for aphids. Journal of experimental Biology 205, 3009-3018.

Johnson SN, Mayhew PJ Douglas AE and Hartley SE, 2002. Insects as leaf engineers – can leaf miners alter leaf structure for birch aphids. Functional Ecology 16, 575-584.

Brown BE, Dunne RP, Goodson MS and Douglas AE, 2002. Experience shapes the susceptibility of a reef coral to bleaching. Coral Reefs 21, 119-126.

Douglas AE, Darby AC, Birkle LM and Walters KFA, 2002. The ecological significance of symbiotic micro-organisms in animals – perspectives from the microbiota of aphids. In Genes in the Environment, ed. RM Hails, J Beringer and HCJ Godfray, pp. 306-325. Blackwell Scientific Publishers.

Mittler TE and Douglas AE, 2002. Honeydew. In Encyclopedia of Insects. (ed. VH Resh and RT Carde) Academic Press, New York.

Douglas AE 2002. The functions of symbiotic micro-organisms in insects. In Symbiosis: Mechanisms and Model Systems, ed. J. Seckbach. Kluwer Academic Publishers, The Netherlands, pp. 675-684.


Wilkinson TL, Adams D, Minto LB and Douglas AE, 2001. The impact of host plant on the abundance and function of symbiotic bacteria in an aphid. Journal of experimental Biology 204, 3027-38. Pubmed

Raymond B, Searle JB and Douglas AE, 2001. On the processes shaping reproductive isolation in aphids of theAphis fabae (Scop.) complex (Aphididae: Homoptera). Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 74, 205-215.

Goodson MS, Whitehead LF and Douglas AE, 2001. Symbiotic dinoflagellates in marine Cnidaria: diversity and function. Hydrobiologia 461, 79-82.

Wilkinson TL, Minto LB and Douglas AE, 2001. Amino acids as respiratory substrates in aphids: an analysis of Aphis fabae reared on plants and diets. Physiological Entomology 26, 225-8.

Darby AC, Birkle LM, Turner SL and Douglas AE, 2001 An aphid-borne bacterium allied to the secondary symbionts of whitefly. FEMS Microbiology Ecology 36, 43-50. Pubmed

Tosh CR, Walters KFA and Douglas AE, 2001. On the mechanistic basis of plant affiliation in the black bean aphid (Aphis fabae) species complex. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 99, 121-125.

Douglas AE, Minto LB and Wilkinson TL, 2001. Quantifying nutrient production by the microbial symbiosis in an aphid. Journal of Experimental Biology, 204, 349-358. Pubmed

Douglas AE, 2001. Symbiosis. In Encyclopedia of Evolution, ed. M Pagel, pp.1093-1099. Oxford University Press, New York.

Douglas AE, 2001 The productivity of corals. In Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems. EOLSS Publishers Co Ltd.

Douglas AE, 2001. Algal Symbioses. Encyclopedia of Life Sciences, Macmillan.


Raymond B, Darby AC and Douglas AE, 2000. Intraguild predation and the spatial distribution of a parasitoid.Oecologia 124, 367-72.

Douglas AE, 2000. Reproductive diapause and the bacterial symbiosis in the sycamore aphid Drepanosiphum platanoidis (Schr.). Ecological Entomology 25, 256-61.

Raymond B, Darby AC and Douglas AE, 2000. The olfactory responses of coccinellids to aphids on plants.Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 95, 113-7.

Brown BE, Dunne RP, Goodson MS and Douglas AE, 2000. Bleaching patterns in reef corals. Nature 404, 142-3.Pubmed

Parker WE, Howard JJ, Karley AJ and Douglas AE, 2000. Crop growth stage and the phenology of aphid populations on potato. The Brighton Crop and Pests Conference 2000, 955-960.

Douglas AE, 2000. Symbiotic micro-organisms in insects. In Encyclopedia of Microbiology (2nd edition). Academic Press, pp. 526-38.

Ashford DA, Smith WA and Douglas AE, 2000 Living on a high sugar diet: the fate of sucrose ingested by a phloem-feeding insect, the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum. Journal of Insect Physiology 46, 335-342. Pubmed


Wang JT and Douglas AE, 1999. Essential amino acid synthesis and nitrogen recycling in an alga-invertebrate symbiosis. Marine Biology 135, 219-222.

Birkle LM and Douglas AE, 1999. Low genetic diversity among pea aphids (Acyrthosiphon pisum) biotypes of different plant affiliation. Heredity 82, 605-12. Pubmed


Wilkinson TL and Douglas AE, 1998. Host cell allometry and regulation of the symbiosis between pea aphids, Acyrthosiphon pisum, and bacteria, Buchnera. Journal of Insect Physiology 44, 629-635. Pubmed

Billinghurst Z, Douglas AE and Trapido-Rosenthal HG 1998. On the genetic diversity of the symbiosis between the coral Montastraea cavernosa and zooxanthellae in Bermuda. In Proceedings of the 8th International Coral Reef Symposium 2, 1291-1294.

Wang J-T and Douglas AE, 1998. Nitrogen recycling or nitrogen conservation in an alga-invertebrate symbiosis?Journal of experimental Biology 201, 2445-53. Pubmed

Wilkinson TL and Douglas AE, 1998. Plant penetration by pea aphids (Acyrthosiphon pisum) of different plant range. Entomologia Experientia et Applicata 87, 43-50.

Douglas, AE, 1998. Host benefit and the evolution of specialization in symbiosis. Heredity 80, 599-603.

Douglas AE, 1998. Nutritional interactions in insect-microbial symbioses. Annual Reviews of Entomology 43, 17-37. Pubmed


Wilkinson TL, Ashford DA, Pritchard J. and Douglas AE, 1997. Honeydew sugars and osmoregulation in the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum. Journal of experimental Biology 200, 2137-43.

Humphreys NJ and Douglas AE, 1997. The partitioning of symbiotic bacteria between generations of an insect: a quantitative study of Buchnera in the pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum) reared at different temperatures.Applied and Environmental Microbiology 63, 3294-6. Pubmed

Bythell JC, Douglas AE, Sharp VA, Searle JB and Brown BE, 1997. Algal genotype and photoacclimatory responses of the symbiotic algae Symbiodinium in natural populations of the sea anemone Anemonia viridis.Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B 264, 1277-1282.

Wang J-T and Douglas AE, 1997. Nutrients, signals and photosynthate release by symbiotic algae: the impact of taurine on the dinoflagellate alga Symbiodinium from the sea anemone Aiptasia pulchella. Plant Physiology114, 631-6. Pubmed

Douglas AE, 1997. Provenance, experience and host plant affiliation in the polyphagous aphid, Aphis fabae.Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 83, 161-70.

Adams D and Douglas AE, 1997. How symbiotic bacteria influence plant utilisation by the polyphagous aphid,Aphis fabae. Oecologica 110, 528-32.

Douglas AE, 1997. Parallels and contrasts between symbiotic bacteria and bacterial-derived organelles: evidence from Buchnera, the bacterial symbiont of aphids. FEMS Microbiology Ecology 24, 1-9.


Wilkinson TL and Douglas AE, 1996. The impact of aposymbiosis on amino acid metabolism of pea aphids (Acyrthosiphon pisum). Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 80, 279-282.

Douglas AE, 1996. Reproductive failure and the amino acid pools in pea aphids (Acyrthosiphon pisum) lacking symbiotic bacteria. Journal of Insect Physiology 42, 247-255.

Adams D, Wilkinson TL and Douglas AE, 1996. The aphid-bacterial symbiosis: a comparison between pea aphids (Acyrthosiphon pisum) and black bean aphids (Aphis fabae). Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata80, 275-278.

Douglas AE, 1996. Microorganisms in symbiosis: adaptation and specialisation. In Evolution of microbial Life(eds D McLRoberts, P Sharp, G Alderson and MA Collins). Symposia Society for General Microbiology 54, 225-242. Cambridge University Press.

Douglas AE and Beard CB, 1996. Microbial symbioses in the midgut of insects. In The Insect Midgut (ed. by M.J. Lehane and P.F. Billingsley), pp. 419-431. Chapman and Hall.


Wilkinson TL and Douglas AE, 1995. Why aphids lacking symbiotic bacteria have elevated levels of the amino acid glutamine. Journal of Insect Physiology 41, 921-927.

Wilkinson TL and Douglas AE, l995. Aphid feeding, as influenced by the disruption of the symbiotic bacteria.Journal of Insect Physiology 41, 635-640.

Simpson SJ, Abisgold JD and Douglas AE, 1995. Response of the pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum) to variation in dietary levels of sugar and amino acids: the significance of amino acid quality. Journal of Insect Physiology41, 41-46.

Douglas AE, 1995. The ecology of symbiotic microorganisms. Advances in Ecological Research 26, 69-103.

Douglas AE, 1995. Symbiosis: mutual benefit or exploitation? Biological Science Review 7, 8-11.


Douglas AE, 1994. Symbiotic Interactions. Oxford University Press.

Abisgold JD, Simpson SJ and Douglas AE, 1994. Nutrient regulation in the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum: application of a novel geometric framework to sugar and amino acid consumption. Physiological Entomology19, 95-102.


Whitehead LF and Douglas AE, 1993. A metabolic study of Buchnera, the intracellular bacterial symbionts of the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum. Journal of general Microbiology 139, 821-826.

Douglas AE, 1993. The nutritional quality of phloem sap utilized by natural aphid populations. Ecological Entomology 18, 31-38.

Douglas AE, McAuley PJ and Davies PS, 1993. Algal symbiosis in Cnidaria. Journal of Zoology 231, 175-178.

Rands ML, Loughman BC and Douglas AE, 1993. The symbiotic interface in an alga-invertebrate symbiosis.Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B 253, 161-165.

Hay DB, Hart BJ and Douglas AE, 1993. Effects of the fungus Aspergillus penicillioides on the house dust miteDermatophagoides pteronyssinus: an experimental re-evaluation. Medical and Veterinary Entomology 7, 271-274. Pubmed

Whitehead LF and Douglas AE, 1993. Populations of symbiotic bacteria in the parthenogenetic pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum) symbiosis. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B 254, 29-32.

Wilkinson TL, Whitehead WA and Douglas AE, 1993. Symbiosis and the capacity of aphids to synthesise essential amino acids. Endocytobiology V, pp. 325-336.


Douglas AE and Prosser WA, 1992. Synthesis of the essential amino acid tryptophan in the pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum) symbiosis. Journal of Insect Physiology 38, 565-568.

Douglas AE, 1992. Requirement of pea aphids (Acyrthosiphon pisum) for their symbiotic bacteria. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 65, 195-198.

Hay DB, Hart BJ and Douglas AE, 1992. Evidence refuting the contribution of the fungus Aspergillus penicilliodes to the allergenicity of the house dust mite Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus. International Archives of Allergy & Immunology 97, 86-88. Pubmed

Rands ML, Douglas AE, Loughman BC and Ratcliffe RG, 1992. Avoidance of hypoxia in a cnidarian symbiosis by algal photosynthetic oxygen. Biological Bulletin 182, 159-162.

Rands ML, Douglas AE, Loughman BC and Hawes CR, 1992. The pH of the perisymbiont space in the green hydra-Chlorella symbiosis. Protoplasma 170, 90-93.

Douglas AE, 1992. Symbiosis in evolution. In: Oxford Surveys in Evolutionary Biology 8, 347-382. Oxford University Press.

Hay DB, Hart BJ, Pearce RB, Kozakiewicz Z and Douglas AE, 1992. How relevant are house dust mite-fungal interactions in laboratory culture to the natural dust system? Experimental & Applied Acarology 16, 37-47.Pubmed

Whitehead LF, Wilkinson TL and Douglas AE, 1992. Nitrogen recycling in the pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum) symbiosis. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B 250, 115-117.

Prosser WA and Douglas AE, 1992. A test of the hypotheses that nitrogen is upgraded and recycled in an aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum) symbiosis. Journal of Insect Physiology 38, 93-99.

Prosser WA, Simpson SJ and Douglas AE, 1992. How an aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum) symbiosis responds to variation in dietary nitrogen. Journal of Insect Physiology 38, 301-307.

Douglas AE, 1992. Microbial brokers of insect-plant interactions. Proceedings of the 8th International Insect Plant Interactions (ed. SBJ Menken, JH Visser and P Harrewijn), pp. 329-336. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht.

Douglas AE, 1992. Symbiotic microorganisms in insects. In Encyclopedia of Microbiology 4, 165-178.

Douglas AE, 1992. Algal symbioses in acoel turbellaria: factors determining the identity of the algal symbionts. In Algal Symbioses (ed. W Reisser), pp. 199-214. Biopress Ltd, UK.


Prosser WA and Douglas AE, 1991. The aposymbiotic aphid: an analysis of chlortetracycline-treated pea aphid,Acyrthosiphon pisum. Journal of Insect Physiology 37, 713-719.

Hart BJ and Douglas AE, 1991. The relationship between house-dust mites and fungi. In The Acari: Reproduction, Development and Life History Strategies (eds PW Murphy and R Schuster), pp. 319-324. Chapman and Hall, London.


Douglas AE and Hart BJ, 1990. The significance of the fungus Aspergillus penicillioides to the house dust mite Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus. Symbiosis 7, 105-116.


Harrison CP, Douglas AE and Dixon AFG, 1989. A rapid method to isolate symbiotic bacteria from aphids.Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 53, 427-428.

Douglas AE, 1989. Mycetocyte symbiosis in insects. Biological Reviews 69, 409-434. Pubmed

Douglas AE and Smith DC, 1989. Are endosymbioses mutualistic? Trends in Ecology & Evolution 4, 350-352.


Douglas AE, 1988. The influence of host contamination on maltose release by symbiotic Chlorella. Limnology & Oceanography 33, 295-297.

Douglas AE, 1988. On the source of sterols in the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae, reared on holidic diets.Journal of Insect Physiology 34, 403-408.

Douglas AE, 1988. Experimental studies on the mycetome symbiosis in the leafhopper Euscelis incisus. Journal of Insect Physiology 34, 1043-1053.

Douglas AE, 1988. Sulphate utilisation in an aphid symbiosis. Insect Biochemistry 18, 599-605.


Douglas AE and Dixon AFG, 1987. The mycetocyte symbiosis in aphids: variation with age and morph in virginoparae of Megoura viciae and Acyrthosiphon pisum. Journal of Insect Physiology 33, 109- 113.

Douglas AE, 1987. Experimental studies on symbiotic Chlorella in the neorhabdocoel turbellaria Dalyellia viridis and Typhloplana viridata. British Phycological Journal 22, 157-161.

Smith DC and Douglas AE, 1987. The Biology of Symbiosis. Edward Arnold.

Douglas AE, 1987. Alga-invertebrate symbiosis. In Biochemistry of the Algae and Cyanobacteria (eds LJ Rogers and JR Gallon), pp.297-310. Oxford University Press.

Douglas AE, 1987. Nutritional interactions as signals in the green hydra symbiosis. In Cell to Cell Signals in Plant, Animal and Microbial Symbiosis (eds S Scannerini, DC Smith, P Bonfante-Fasolo and V Gianinazzi-Pearson), pp. 283-296. Elsevier, Amsterdam.

Douglas AE, 1987. Specificity in the Convoluta roscoffensis-Tetraselmis symbiosis. In Cell to Cell Signals in Plant, Animal and Microbial Symbiosis (eds S Scannerini, DC Smith, P Bonfante-Fasolo and V Gianinazzi-Pearson), pp. 131-142. Elsevier, Amsterdam.


Douglas AE and Huss VAR, 1986. On the characteristics and taxonomic position of symbiotic Chlorella.Archives of Microbiology 145, 80-84.


Douglas AE, 1985. Relationship between chlorophyll a content and protein content in invertebrate symbioses with algae or chloroplasts. Experientia 41, 280-281.

Douglas AE, 1985. Growth and reproduction of Convoluta roscoffensis containing different naturally occurring algal symbionts. Journal of the marine biological association UK 65, 871-879.


Douglas AE, 1984. Relationship between sediment characteristics and size of the acoel turbellarian Convoluta roscoffensis. Hydrobiologia 109, 207-210.

Douglas AE and Smith DC, 1984. The green hydra symbiosis. VIII. Mechanisms in symbiont regulation.Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B 221, 291-319.


Douglas AE, 1983. Establishment of the symbiosis in Convoluta roscoffensis. Journal of the marine biological association UK 63, 419-434.

Douglas AE, 1983. Uric acid utilisation in Platymonas convolutae and symbiotic Convoluta roscoffensis.Journal of the marine biological association UK 63, 435-447.

Douglas AE, 1983. Experimental studies on egg production by Convoluta roscoffensis: Graff, l882 (Turbellaria, Acoela). Hydrobiologia 102, 151-154.

Douglas AE and Smith DC, 1983. The cost of symbionts to their host in green hydra. Endocytobiology 2, 631-648.


Douglas AE and Gooday GW, 1982. The behaviour of algal cells towards egg capsules of Convoluta roscoffensisand its role in the persistence of the Convoluta-alga symbiosis. British Phycological Journal 17, 383-388.